Developing countries showcase sustainable green pathways in response to climate change
UN Climate Change News, 14 June 2022 – Nine developing countries presented their national climate change policies, strategies and plans at the Bonn Climate Conference (June 6-16) as part of the multilateral transparency process – a key part of the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) process under the Convention.
At 12e View sharing facilitating (FSV), Chile, Cuba, Egypt, Malaysia, Namibia, Panama, Thailand, Singapore and Zambia shared their best practices and highlighted their climate actions, capacity building needs and initiatives to improve their relationships.
Most of the emission reduction actions of these countries focus on the energy, transport and forestry sectors, which are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Initiatives presented included the development of renewable energy; the promotion of electric vehicles in their urban transport system; and restoration of forest lands.
Facilitative View Sharing is the last step of the International consultation and analysis (ICA) which is at the heart of the multilateral transparency process.
The importance of FSV for strengthening climate action was underscored by the Deputy Executive Secretary of UN Climate Change, Ovais Sarmad, during the opening of the workshop.
“I hope that through this constructive dialogue, the important contributions of developing country actions will be highlighted and that the call for urgent and more ambitious action will resonate in all countries,” Mr. Sarmad said.
The FSV workshop comes as countries prepare to implement the Improved transparency framework (ETF) under the Paris Agreement – an accountability mechanism that aims to promote the implementation of national climate action plans (Nationally determined contributionsor NDC) and the climate action support stream.
The ETF is an important tool for assessing countries’ progress in implementing and achieving their NDCs, which are key to achieving the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting the average temperature increase. 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
Ambitious mitigation actions presented in the energy, transport and forest sectors
All participating countries are committed to increasing the share of renewable energies in their energy mix and to promoting energy efficiency.
For example, 18% of emission reductions in Malaysia in 2016 resulted from the development of renewable energies, mainly hydro. Thailand also succeeded in reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 57.84 MtCO2 eq thanks to its mitigation measures in the energy and transport sectors in 2018, which is 15.76% less than its projected business as usual level from 2005.
A few countries like Singapore and Chile have also started looking into green hydrogen. These two countries are also actively promoting electric vehicles in their urban transport system.
The forestry sector has been the main source of emission reductions in several countries, including Cuba and Malaysia. Panama plans to restore 50,000 ha of forest land, with the potential to reduce emissions by 2.6 million tCO2 eq by 2050, while a Singapore initiative to plant 1 million trees by 2030 has an estimated sequestration potential of 78,000 tonnes of CO2.
In Namibia, Panama and Zambia, their forest and land categories currently absorb more carbon than they emit, making them net carbon sink countries.
Malaysia, Panama and Singapore have also started developing carbon markets, while the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Carbon offset project activities under the Kyoto Protocol have been promoted in Egypt. Currently, 20 CDM projects and 6 programs are registered in Egypt, covering the energy, transport, industry and waste sectors, with an estimated total annual emissions reduction of 4.2 million tCO2 equivalent.
The delegates from Egypt, presenting their first BUR
Preparing for the transition to the enhanced transparency framework
The ICA process offers developing countries an opportunity to improve their national measurement, reporting and verification system to facilitate the transition to the ETF, and they have expressed their capacity building needs in the part of this process.
Many developing countries have submitted a Biennial Update Report (BUR), outlining the climate actions they have taken, as well as their needs and the support received. Based on this, many countries have started planning and preparing their first Biennial Transparency Report (BTR).
“Following the example of those Parties submitted to the FSV, I would also like to encourage all developing country Parties that have not yet done so to submit their first BURs. Such actions will be beneficial for the preparation of your first BTR under the ETF,” said Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) Chair Marianne Karlsen.
Closing the workshop, SBI Vice-Chair Juan Carlos Monterrey Gomez said the constructive dialogues had given participants a clearer picture of our current situation. He stressed that further action is needed and called for collaboration among all governments to achieve the collective goals of the Paris Agreement.
Juan Carlos Monterrey Gomez, Vice-Chair of the SBI, chairing the 12e FSV workshop